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Appraisal of the Water Quality of the Red sea and Prospect of its Use for Irrigation

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dc.contributor.author Fatima Ali Mohamed Ahmed
dc.contributor.author Supervisor: Mukhtar Ahmed Mustafa
dc.date.accessioned 2016-05-28T07:12:22Z
dc.date.available 2016-05-28T07:12:22Z
dc.date.issued 2016-05-28
dc.identifier.uri http://repository.rsu.edu.sd:8080/jspui/
dc.description.abstract The study was undertaken to assess the spatial and temporal variations of the quality of the Red sea water and reflect on the possibility of its use when mixed with well water and seasonal streams for irrigating salt-tolerant crops and trees in the Red sea State. Water samples were collected in summer (August 2005) and winter (January 2006) from 5 locations: namely Arim, Suakin, Portsudan, Arbaat and Dongonap. Well water samples were collected from three coastal locations at Arim, Arbaat and Dongonap. Three transects, extending seven kilometer from the seashore inland were considered at these three locations for soil sampling. Along each transect soil samples and palatable plants were collected at 0.01, 3.5 and 7.0 km from seashore. At each site, the soil samples were collected from the following successive depths: 0-10, 10-30, 30-60 and 60-90 cm. The plant samples were collected using a quadrate of 100 m2. In summer, the EC values of the Red sea water ranged from 52.3 dS/m to 60.7 dS/m with a mean of 55.4 dS/m and a CV of 6 %. In winter, the EC ranged from 51.7 dS/m to 57.7 dS/m with a mean of 54.6 dS/m and a CV of 4.9 %. Both the spatial and temporal variations of EC value are low. In general, the EC values increased northward. Na+ and Cl¯ are the predominant ions in the Red sea water. In both seasons, Na+ constituted more than 60 % of the main four cations. While chloride constituted more than 80.5% of the main three anions (Cl¯,CO3¯ ¯and SO4¯ ¯ ). Thus, NaCl is the predominant salt in the Red sea water. In summer, SAR ranged from 50.0 to 75.7 with a mean of 59.9 and a CV of 16.1 %. In winter, SAR ranged from 58.3 to 73.6 with a mean of 66.2 and a CV of 9.8 %. Similar to EC, SAR increased northward. The spatial and temporal variations of SAR value are moderate. In summer, the EC values of the well waters ranged from 5.0 dS/m to 14.3 dS/m with a mean of 8.7 dS/m and a CV of 56.3 %. In winter, the EC ranged from 5.6 dS/m to 13.0 dS/m with a mean of 7.9 dS/m and a CV of 56 %. In both seasons, the well water at Arbaat gave the lowest salinity level due the high water recharge of "Khor" Arbaat. It is evident that the sea water is more than 5 times that of the well water. In summer, the SAR ranged from 2.4 to 16.8 with a mean of 11.6 and a CV of 68.9 %. In winter, the SAR ranged from 2.4 to 14.9 with a mean of 10.5 and a CV of 66.9 %. It is evident that the temporal variation of both EC and SAR are very low. However, their spatial variations are very high. This well water may be mixed with sea water for growing some salt-tolerant crops. At the three studied locations, the ECe and SAR of the soil samples decreased significantly with increase of distance away from the sea shore. This trend was attributed to increased salt leaching and decrease of the intrusion of sea water. At 0.01 km away from the seashore at Arim, the ECe decreased with soil depth from 72.0 dS/m in 0-10 cm to 41.7 dS/m at 30-60 cm and then it increased to 73.7 dS/m at 60-90cm. This increase was attributed to the presence of sea water at this depth. While at 3.5 km, the ECe decreased steadily with depth from 5.7 dS/m at the top layer to 0.50 dS/m at 60-90 cm. While at 7 km, the ECe decreased from 1.0 dS/m at the top layer to 0.4 dS/m at 10-30 cm and it increased to 1.9 at 60-90 cm. This increase was attributed to salt leaching by the seasonal stream water and the absence of sea water intrusion. The mean ECe of the soil profile decreased significantly with distance (X km) away from the seashore according to the following logarithmic trend line: ECe = - 9.1018 Ln X + 79.272 (r2 = 0.9939) For the other two locations the trend lines were as follows: ECe = - 2E-0.6 X2 + 0.0015 X + 86.885 (r2 =1.0000) Arbaat ECe = 2 – 4.8548 Ln X + 49.96 (r2 =0.9795) Dongonap The pattern of the SAR profile distribution is nearly similar to that of the ECe distribution. The results showed that the studied areas contained thirteen palatable species which can be grazed by animals. In general, the results indicated that the distribution of the native vegetation follows the salt distribution in the soil and that the vegetation at 7.0 km away from the sea coast is dominated by non-halophytic plants. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.subject master en_US
dc.subject الماجستير en_US
dc.subject ماجستير en_US
dc.subject Red sea en_US
dc.subject Irrigation en_US
dc.subject Water en_US
dc.title Appraisal of the Water Quality of the Red sea and Prospect of its Use for Irrigation en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US


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